Bacterial diseases seriously infecting major horticultural crops in Ethiopia and their management
Keywords:Distribution, Economic importance, Emergence, Epidemiology, Management, Horticultural crops
Horticultural crops that can solve food insecurity problems are essential commodities. The availability of diverse soil, favorable climatic conditions, and comfortable agro-ecological zones in Ethiopia provide ample opportunities to produce them. However, the success of production has been challenged by biotic and biotic factors. From which, diseases caused by bacterial pathogens are the current globally emerging and re-emerging threats of crop production. Hence, this review is crucial to accentuating newly emerged and re-emerged bacterial diseases that cause great economic damage to essential horticultural crops in the country. Many African countries are experiencing outbreaks and the potential for these bacterial pathogens to emerge. Among these, many hosts killing and yield loss problems due to ginger bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), bacterial blight of coffee (Pseudomonas syringae), banana, and enset wilt (Xanthomonas campestris) diseases result in > 50% yield reduction. Various factors like introducing new types within a species, homogeneity of resistant plant varieties, hybridization within pathogen species, and introducing an arthropod vector to be "emergence" or increase in importance within that environment to favor their distribution. Once they are established, bacterial disease management is so complex both by chemical and biological means and is restrained primarily by preventive measures such as hygiene, healthy planting materials, good cultural practices, and avoidance. The potential use of community heterogeneity/plant population/is an exciting and controversial option to reduce the risk of disease emergence. In all, this article is crucial to offer detailed insight on some bacterial diseases that threaten the production of economically essential horticultural crops.
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